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What is Inside an LED?

Date:2012-09-18
 LED's are special diodes that emit light when connected in a circuit. They are frequently used as "pilot" lights in electronic appliances to indicate whether the circuit is closed or not. A a clear (or often colored) epoxy case enclosed the heart of an LED, the semi-conductor chip.
The two wires extending below the LED epoxy enclosure, or the "bulb" indicate how the LED should be connected into a circuit. The negative side of an LED lead is indicated in two ways: 1) by the flat side of the bulb, and 2) by the shorter of the two wires extending from the LED. The negative lead should be connected to the negative terminal of a battery. LED's operate at relative low voltages between about 1 and 4 volts, and draw currents between about 10 and 40 milliamperes. Voltages and currents substantially above these values can melt a LED chip.


LED leads

<-- -->
side lead on flat
side of bulb = negative


The most important part of a light emitting diode (LED) is the semi-conductor chip located in the center of the bulb as shown at the right. The chip has two regions separated by a junction. The p region is dominated by positive electric charges, and the n region is dominated by negative electric charges. The junction acts as a barrier to the flow of electrons between the p and the n regions. Only when sufficient voltage is applied to the semi-conductor chip, can the current flow, and the electrons cross the junction into the p region.

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